Class Announcements:

Congratulations to this year's 8th Grade Geo Bee Top 10! Many of the following will advance to the School Geo Bee Championships after Winter Break depending on how the 6th and 7th graders scored in their respective Geo Bee's-

Andrew Pilarczyk- 39Tommy Logalbo-24Avery Hendl - 20Antoinette Walter-19Mia Bryant- 18
Nate Ruehr-18
Mohammed Alayed-18
Sam Nabring - 17Alex Moore - 14Aurora Fabec- 13

50 point Document Based Summative this Wednesday and Thursday over the Road to Revolution. Wednesday, students will be provided with primary source documents and their essay prompt. They will have all Wednesday to read and annotate the documents and plan their essay. They will have all day in class on Thursday, to write their essay. 25 points will come from their preparation. 25 points will come from their essay.

To prepare in class...

This week we will be reviewing the early years of the Road to Revolution from the end of the French and Indian War in 1763 to the Boston Massacre in 1770. We will then move into a study of the course of events from 1770 through the Boston Tea Party in 1773 and the first battles of the War for Independence at Lexington and Concord in 1775. Students will review the Organizing Colonial Resistance Overview article and videos about Economic, Political and Violent Protests and use a simple "Colonial Unrest-o-meter" to show their interpretation of the seriousness of different events along the Road to Revolution.

Direct links to assigned ABC-CLIO articles and videos have been embedded in the assignments posted to our Assignments page. Click on "Assignments" to the right.

Last week we took extra time to dig into the years 1770-1775 in more depth with a particular focus on concept of Civil Disobedience and how that was demonstrated in the Boston Tea party. As a result, we are postponing our study of the Declaration of Independence and the War for Independence until after Winter Break.

We will be showing and discussing the 2nd Episode of the the Original TV Series Roots starting on Friday and running through Wednesday. This is meant to deliberately contrast the reality of American Slavery with revolutionary calls for liberty that resulted in American Independence.

There is a new extra credit discussion about What it Means to Be an American based on a video produced by the Diversity Center of Northeast Ohio and featuring 2 Aurora High School Students. Click on "Discussions" in the Menu to the Right. A final discussion for 2nd quarter will be posted next Sunday, December 17th.

See the 2 Road to Revolution Big Picture Summaries below.

Road to Revolution II- 1770-1775 Big Picture

The Boston Massacre scared both Patriots and Loyalists. Britain allowed a trial of the commanding officer, Captain Preston and his 8 soldiers to be held in a Colonial Court. All were charged with murder. To make sure that the trial was fair, patriot lawyers- including John Adams, defended the soldiers, and loyalist (Tory) lawyers prosecuted them. This was important to show that the colonies could govern themselves. The court acquitted all of the troops except for two that were found guilty of a lesser charge of manslaughter, and people accepted this verdict. To calm tensions, the British repealed all of the taxes except for one on tea- and pulled their troops out of the cities. Patriots ceased with violent protests and focused on organizing themselves throughout the colonies through letter writing groups known as Committees of Correspondence.

The next step towards revolution came in 1773 when Britain voted the Tea Act to "dump" subsidized tea in the American Colonies to support its East India Tea Company. While the price was lower than ever- it still included the tax on tea, and so Patriots protested again mainly by organizing boycotts. In Boston 3 tea ships were stuck by the politics. Patriots wouldn't let them land their tea. The British wouldn't let them leave until they had. Ultimately, the Sons of Liberty resolved the situation by dumping the tea overboard in the "Boston Tea Party".

Infuriated by this audacity, Britain responded with the Intolerable Acts- also known as the Coercive Acts to punish Massachusetts until such time as the destroyed tea and its tax were paid for. They closed the port of Boston, closed local governments, passed a new quartering act and returned soldiers to Boston, and promised to protect royal officials accused of wrong doing in the Colonies by trying them in Canada or England. They also passed the Quebec Act which added to the size of British Canada and won support of the French Canadians.

This British overreaction was published throughout the Colonies by Patriot Committees of Correspondence. Representatives from 12 of the Colonies met in Philadelphia in 1774 as the First Continental Congress to organize resistance throughout the colonies. Colonists were urged to boycott British goods, and Colonial Militias were directed to stockpile weapons and ammunition and start training for armed conflict with British troops. Special groups of militia were called "minutemen". Patrick Henry electrified the Virginia Assembly with his "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech.

The conflict came on April 19th, 1775 when "the shot heard round the world" was fired at Lexington- the first shot of the first battle of America's War for Independence. No one knows who fired that first shot, but looking at primary source accounts, one can argue for one side or the other.

Road to Revolution I- 1763-1770 Big Picture

In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War and resulted in some of the largest territorial changes in all of World History. France gave up all of Canada and Louisiana which were divided between Britain and Spain. Britain took Canada, and all of what becomes the United States including Spanish Florida from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. With the French threat eliminated, and Native American resistance greatly weakened, American settlers flood West into the Ohio territory. A Huron chief, Pontiac- organizes a coalition of tribes to fight back and begins attacking and seizing British forts on the frontier. Just when it seemed that all was set for Britain to bring its troops home, it had to send them back into action in defense of American Colonists.

Once the rebellion is defeated, Britain attempts to keep Colonists and Natives separate. It will designate the crest of the Appalachians as a boundary line between the two. Colonists are to remain east. Natives are to be guaranteed the lands to the West. Colonists who have already settled west are to abandon their homes and move back East. Such is the price of peace with Native Americans. American Colonists refuse to comply.

In order to enforce this Proclamation Act, Britain decides to keep British troops in the Colonies, and looks to the Colonies to foot their fair share of the bill. Old laws will be enforced including Navigation Acts specifying that the Colonies are only to import sugar from British suppliers- and to only do so on British flagged ships. Laws against smuggling will likewise be enforced. Another act designed to generate revenue is the Stamp Act imposed upon all paper goods. This is a direct tax- think National Sales tax, that the colonists are to pay to the Crown. This seems a violation of English rights- and colonist organized resistance claiming that the tax is "Taxation without Representation" (You'll see this on the license plates in DC on our trip interestingly enough). They respond with diplomacy- calling the Stamp Act Congress and petitioning Parliament. They also respond with intimidation, and boycotts organized by groups known as the Sons and Daughters of Liberty. People choose up sides- Loyalist (pro England) or Patriot (Pro Colonies). About a 3rd remain neutral. They take no sides and try to mind their own business.

Along with the Stamp Act, a 1765 Quartering Act directs the colonies to pay the costs of providing for British troops stationed on their territory- including, if necessary housing them in private homes. Colonists suspect that the troops are not there to defend them, but to impose British authority upon them.

In 1766 Parliament repeals the Stamp Act and replaces it with taxes on imports that they feel that the Colonists couldn't do without and thus couldn't boycott. These are the Townshend Acts. Along with this, Royal Officials are given blanket search warrants known as Writs of Assistance to help them pursue smugglers. Tensions grow- more in Boston than anywhere, and in March 1770, British troops fire into a crowd of protesting Colonists killing 5.

What turned allies into enemies in such a short space of time?
How did American colonists and British loyalists start perceiving each other as being different?
What was the tipping point?
When did a majority of Americans begin to consider a break with Britain, of joining with the other colonies to exercise their right of self-determination (invented in America) and work to create an Independent United Colonies of America?

The French and Indian Wars Big Picture

From 1689 through 1763, British, French, and Native Americans fought for control of North America over the course of 4 wars. The first 3 wars began in Europe, and when the Empires went to war, their colonies were expected to follow suit. However, the fighting in America was far different than in Europe. Where European wars pitted armies and navies against each and were fought for balance of power or mercantilist purposes- the wars in American mostly pitted armies against civilians and were fought for survival. Raids and counter-raids were launched across the frontier between French and British colonies, and warfare was mainly fought through guerrilla style hit and run attacks and ambushes. At the end of the wars, treaties negotiated in Europe tended to put things back to where they were before the war, so in North America, nothing was gained by either side despite the loss of life. Resentments built, as did the determination to settle things once and for all to define borders and put an end to the terror, the fear, and the random killings that characterized life on the frontier.

In 1753 French activity in the Ohio Valley- specifically their construction of Fort Duquesne at the site of what is now Pittsburgh was challenged by the Colony of Virginia which also claimed that area west of the Appalachians. Control of Fort Duquesne meant control of the whole Ohio River Valley which lead to the Mississippi and connected the French Colonies of Canada and Louisiana. The land that is now Aurora, Ohio was full located on French claimed territory at that time. So, the governor of Virginia sent the young militia Colonel George Washington along with a small militia force and an escort of Native American allies to deliver a letter to the French directing them to leave Virginia claimed territory. En route they came upon an advanced guard of Canadian militia and their Native American allies and fell upon them in a surprise attack- killing a French officer/diplomat named Jumonville. The French pursued, and surrounded Washington and his small force in their hastily erected stockade that they named Fort Necessity. Washington surrendered after a short siege to save his men- and in French, which he didn't understand he signed surrender terms in which he admitted to assassinating a French diplomat. He and his men were allowed the honors of war- to return to Virginia with word that the Ohio Valley was French territory. But, killing a diplomat was considered an act of war, and when word reached France, France declared war on Britain. The 4th and final French and Indian War began in North America and will prove decisive.

The outcome of the war changes so much territory that it should be considered a turning point in World History. It also should be credited for leading the American colonists to start thinking of themselves as Americans rather than as British Subjects- and the same might be said for Canadians in regards to the French. Within this turning point war, we'll focus on the turning point battle of Fort William Henry that is the historical centerpiece of novel, Last of the Mohicans which we will view in its film version in class to better appreciate the many perspectives that were in conflict in this war. This isn't a war of two opposing sides- it's a war of six opposing groups which line up on two opposing sides- but are each looking out for their own interests and using the other groups to secure them. On the one side are the French, the French Colonists (Canadians) and their Native American Allies (Huron, Abenaki, and Ottawa) and on the other are the British, the American Colonists, and their Native American Allies (Iroquois and Delaware).

Washington will return to the conflict in 1755 as a guide to British General Braddock who ignores Washington's advice and whose force marches into an ambush and one of the worst defeats in the history of the British Army en route to Ft. Duquesne. Washington organizes the defense and distinguishes himself for showing courage under fire- but duly notes in reflection for later that the British are not invicible. This story was dramatized in the film "We Fight to be Free" that students saw at Mount Vernon. A Colonial attempt to unite for the purpose of self defense is proposed in a convention at Albany, but a proposed plan of union is never ratified. The war seems to be going in favor of the French up until their victory at Fort William Henry in 1757, but a massacre of surrendering troops by their Native American allies afterwards is seen as such a war crime that Britain changes policy to focus all of its efforts on winning the war in America. While France is fighting for its life in Europe- superior British forces grind down French resistance in North America and work their way to and take Quebec in a decisive battle in 1759 that we will also examine. When the war, which is actually a world war ends with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the map of North America will be redrawn. French territory will be split between Britain and Spain, while France retains only its sugar island of St. Domingue (Haiti) and its fishing islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon near Newfoundland. French Canadians will remain on their lands, just under British rule. French Louisianans will fall under either Spanish or British rule depending on where they live. Native Americans will rise up against the British in Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763 over what they perceive is a British violation of their treaty of alliance terms.

How the British respond to that will change the rules by which they govern America in regards to their American Colonists. American resistance to these rule changes will set the 13 Colonies on a "Road to Revolution" which will be the topic of our next unit.

SOCIAL STUDIES 8 WIKISPACE COURSE WEBSITE: This course wiki-space has been built to be your gateway to all things Social Studies in support of what we do in class and beyond. During our opening unit you'll join the site and be given a guided tour before being sent off on your own explorations. You should visit this site regularly as part of your academic routine and we hope you will help us build this site further through your participation in discussions and by suggesting websites, videos, documents and more to add to our collection of online resources. This site complements the assignments and activities that will be shared with you through your Social Studies 8 Google Classroom.

Students will be assigned articles to read and videos to view in their online textbook: the ABC-CLIO online American History encyclopedia that is linked to the Menu. These resources offer outlines of key ideas, and all of the articles may be read to the students by clicking on the audio button. Our resources link also connects to pages packed with online resources to enrich and expand all of our units of study. To review- the American Nation text site provides practice chapter tests, and the Class Zone Activities site provides many interactive review activities. Both of these will be again demonstrated to students in class.

Every link in the menu leads to amazing Social Studies resources that will be worked with in this course.

Check Assignments in the menu to get to day by day HW assignments and class activity plans. This Wiki will always have more detailed information than the HW Hotline

More information about using this wiki follows below...

Getting Started
  • Check the Navigation Menu to the Right to access the different features of our Course Site
  • Once you have created a Wikispaces account, or sign in to wikispaces through this site you must request to join this site.
  • Once your request to join this site is approved, you will be able to participate in discussions... and eventually interact with your teachers and peers through a number of activities and projects that will be run through or linked to this site.
  • As a member of this site you will be able to edit any page. But please, edit and add only to those pages that are created for you or that you are given permission to create. This site is meant to be a great, friendly place for all 270 Harmon 8th graders to interact with their teachers and their peers. All changes are recorded and identified by author. Please help us keep this site friendly and working by reporting any postings that you find objectionable or any links or features that appear broken.

We're looking forward to a great year!
Mr. Paul Frankmann and Mrs. Nancy Tyrrell

Need Help?

  • Click on the help link above in the top right hand corner to learn more about how to use this wiki.